Top 108 Earthquake and Tsunami Sites

By Lorri Cardwell-Casey

The good news: the scientific community’s succeeded in giving the public plenty of earthquake and tsunami information. The bad news: sometimes, there’s so much information out there, it can feel like a tsunami of data.

We’ve done the hard work for you. We’ve searched and sorted through earthquake and tsunami websites, in order to present one easy-to-navigate site with the top 108 sites and resources in this annotated list of over 150+ resources. We can save you time. You can find what you need for your lesson plans or school report here. We include sites that give you the basics, those which answer more detailed questions, and some that do both. We’ve sub-headed material into earthquake topics, then similar topics for tsunamis.

These are serious subjects. But knowledge and preparation for natural disasters and emergencies can save lives. It’s important to prepare for the worst—and human nature to hope for the best.

Table of Contents: Earthquakes

What is an Earthquake?
Earthquake Facts and Myths
Famous Earthquakes (and U.S. Earthquakes Making News)
Japanese Earthquake 2011
Haiti Earthquake 2010
Chile Earthquakes of 1906, 1960 and 2010
San Francisco Earthquakes 1906 and 1989
Northridge, California Earthquake 1994
Alaska Earthquake 1964
New Madrid, Missouri Earthquake 1811 and 1812
Virginia Earthquake 2011
Earthquake Puzzles Games and Activities

Table of Contents: Tsunamis

What is a Tsunami?
Tsunami Facts
Tsunami Events–and Potential Events
South Pacific Tsunami 2009
California Tsunamis 2006 and 1964
Nicaragua Tsunami 1992
Hawaii Tsunami 1960 and 1946
Alaska Tsunami 1964 and 1956
Java-Sumatra Tsunami 1883
Japanese Tsunami 2011
Indian Ocean Tsunami 2004
Tsunami Puzzles, Games and Activities

*Indicates a website used for two or more listings throughout our site

WHAT IS AN EARTHQUAKE?

  1. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/kids/eqscience.php
    This excellent article and its illustrations gives quick answers to kids’ common questions about an earthquake. It defines an earthquake and covers what happens during an earthquake, what causes an earthquake, where earthquakes occur, why the earth shakes during an earthquake, the science of machines that document an earthquake, how scientists measure an earthquake’s intensity, how scientists can know where an earthquake occurred, whether or not scientists can predict an earthquake, and if weather, animals, or people can foretell an earthquake.
    Source USGS (U.S. Geological Survey) Earthquake Hazards Program, The Science of Earthquakes: “What is an earthquake?”, “What causes earthquakes and where do they happen?”, “Why does the earth shake when there is an earthquake?”, “How are earthquakes recorded?”, “How do scientists measure the size of earthquakes?”, “How can scientists tell where the earthquake happened?”, “Can scientists predict earthquakes?”, and “Is there such a thing as earthquake weather? Can some animals or people tell when an earthquake is about to hit?”
  2. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/kids/RockShakeyGround.pdf
    This fun article about an earthquake gives thorough explanations kids can understand and apply. It answers the who-what-when-where-why-how questions, further demonstrating the material with easy-to-understand illustrations. At the very end, kids and teachers can try two fun experiments and learn even more about what happens during an “earthquake”.
    *Source U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program, by Lisa Wald: “What is an earthquake?”, “What causes earthquakes and where do they happen?”, “Why does the earth shake when there is an earthquake?”, “How are earthquakes recorded?”, “How can scientists tell where the earthquake happened?”, “How do scientists measure the size of earthquakes?”, “Is there such a thing as earthquake weather?”, “Can some animals or people tell when an earthquake is about it hit?”, “Can scientists predict earthquakes?”, “Experiment: Peanut Butter and Jelly Sandwich Faults”, and “Experiment: You Can Make Slinky Waves!”
    Source U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program, article by Lisa Wald
  3. http://www.ready.gov/earthquakes
    This article gives a quick summary of earthquake information, then gives a detailed list of ways you can prepare for an earthquake, indoor and outdoor instructions for what you should do during an earthquake, and what to do to protect your family after an earthquake. For specific advice, quick definitions for earthquake-related words, or to find out even more facts, make sure to click on all five of the following selections:
    -Before,
    -Know The Terms (following the Before header),
    -During,
    -After,
    -More Information.
    Source FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency), Department of Homeland Security, Ready (national campaign to educate and empower Americans for all natural and man-made disasters and emergencies): “EARTHQUAKES” and “Before an Earthquake”, “During an Earthquake”, “After an Earthquake”, “More Information”, and “Know The Terms”
  4. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/glossary/
    Are you curious what a certain earthquake-related word means? This is the site for you. You will see an extensive list of A to Y words, anything and everything related to an earthquake. Click on any word and receive a clear definition.
    Source U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, 2007, EHP Web Team
  5. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/faq/?faqID=96
    This quick Q/A format gives a quick definition to the two-part question, “What is an earthquake and what causes them to happen?”, briefly explaining what causes an earthquake. It uses material about California to give a more specific application about what an earthquake is and how it occurs.
    Source USGS (U.S. Geological Survey) Earthquake Hazards Program, FAQs—Earthquakes, Faults, Plate Tectonics, Earth Structure, “Q: What is an earthquake and what causes them to happen?”
  6. http://www.nationalgeographic.com/forcesofnature/interactive/index.html?section=e
    This site gives an overview about an earthquake and how earthquakes affect our world. Be sure to click on each topic:
    - “Where Do Earthquakes Occur?”,
    -“What Causes Earthquakes?”,
    -“Types of Faults”,
    -“Measurement & Recording”.
    Source National Geographic website, National Geographic Society, 1996
  7. http://www.scemd.org/library/disastermitigation/earthquake/eqbackgrounder.pdf
    This well-written article gives a solid overview about an earthquake and how earthquakes affect the U.S. It adds what to expect following an earthquake, emergency material, how to prepare a community beforehand, and an interesting did-you-know list.
    *Source The South Carolina Emergency Management Department: “What is an earthquake?”, “AWARENESS INFORMATION,” “EMERGENCY INFORMATION,” “DANGER ZONES,” “HELP YOUR COMMUNITY GET READY,” and “DID YOU KNOW…”
  8. http://www.scientificamerican.com/report.cfm?id=earthquake-guide
    Get your answers about an earthquake straight from the experts. Click on the different icons to answer these questions that go a little beyond the typical questions and delve into some of the more complicated topics about an earthquake and its effects, including how an earthquake can be directly related to a tsunami: “How do earthquakes stop?”, “How was the Richter scale for measuring earthquakes developed?”, “Shock Absorbed: Making Cities Earthquake Proof”, and “Tsunami: Wave of Change”.
    Source Scientific American website, “A Guide to Earthquakes”, September 15, 2008
  9. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article-cfm?id=shock-absorbed
    Can buildings be built in a certain way to make them earthquake-proof? Can our building structures be built in a way that saves lives, if there is an earthquake?
    Source Scientific American website, “Shock Absorbed: Making Cities Earthquake Proof”, by Mark Fischetti, September 27, 2004
  10. http://scearthquakes.cofc.edu/educators/factsheets/SCEEPFactSheets_1.pdf
    With good illustrations and activities at the end, this article geared for Grades 5-8 and 9-12 gives students what defines an earthquake and information about how far the earthquake waves can spread.
    *Source South Carolina Earthquake Education & Preparedness Program, College of Charleston, Department of Geology and Environmental Science: “What Is An Earthquake?” and “How far do earthquake waves travel?”; “Elastic Rebound” and “Breaking Loose”
  11. http://scearthquakes.cofc.edu/educators/factsheets/SCEEPFactSheets_2.pdf
    Every teacher and every parent knows every child has a lot of “why” questions. This material answers why an earthquake occurs, with its illustration, photo, and activities further explaining and reinforcing the answer.
    Source South Carolina Earthquake Education & Preparedness Program, College of Charleston, Department of Geology and Environmental Science: “Why Are There Earthquakes?”, written for Grades 5-8 and 9-12
  12. http://scearthquakes.cofc.edu/educators/factsheets/SCEEPFactSheets_3.pdf
    This information addresses what might happen during an earthquake and includes illustrations and activities.
    Source South Carolina Earthquake Education & Preparedness Program, College of Charleston, Department of Geology and Environmental Science: “What Happens During An Earthquake?”, for Grades 5-8 and 9-12
  13. http://scearthquakes.cofc.edu/educators/factsheets/SCEEPFactSheets_4.pdf
    This clear, broad explanation talks about the ways in which an earthquake can cause damage. It breaks down the discussion into excellent specific topics and gives photos, an illustration, and activities.
    Source South Carolina Earthquake Education & Preparedness Program, College of Charleston, Department of Geology and Environmental Science: “How Do Earthquakes Cause Damage?”, for Grades 5-8 and 9-12
  14. http://scearthquakes.cofc.edu/educators/factsheets/SCEEPFactSheets_5.pdf
    This article gives good coverage about earthquake magnitude, different types of seismic waves, and damage to structures during an earthquake. It adds illustrations and activities.
    Source South Carolina Earthquake Education & Preparedness Program, College of Charleston, Department of Geology and Environmental Science: “Locating, Measuring And Predicting Earthquakes—How Do We Do It?”
  15. http://science.howstuffworks.com/nature/natural-disasters/earthquake.htm
    This quick intro gives a brief description of an earthquake and how it might affect our world, using the 2011 Japan earthquake and tsunami to talk about earthquake damage.
    *Source HowStuffWorks, “How Earthquakes Work”, by Tom Harris and Patrick Kiger
  16. Back to Table of Contents

    EARTHQUAKE FACTS AND MYTHS

  17. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/facts.php
    This site gathers 35 random tidbits answering many earthquake FAQs. For curious kids and those wanting to answer kids’ questions, this is a great site! For example, #19 shares that between 1975-1995, only Florida, Iowa, North Dakota, and Wisconsin missed out on having an earthquake. #26 says that the two states with the fewest earthquake events are Florida and North Dakota.
    *Source U.S. Geology Survey Earthquake Hazards Program: “Earthquake Facts”
  18. http://science.howstuffworks.com/nature/natural-disasters/earthquake1.htm
    This quick piece gives some scary facts, showing the many effects an earthquake might have when it occurs.
    Source HowStuffWorks, “Earthquake Facts”
  19. http://science.howstuffworks.com/nature/natural-disasters/earthquake.htm
    From what an earthquake is to what an earthquake can damage to stats on worldwide earthquake records and damage, this quick article covers a lot of ground quickly.
    *Source HowStuffWorks, “How Earthquakes Work”
  20. http://www.fema.gov/hazard/earthquake/facts.shtm
    This brief, but very interesting list of earthquake facts answers many of the basic questions kids might have about an earthquake. It could be called Top 10 Earthquake Facts, because it gives ten different earthquake-related nuggets about when an earthquake might happen, what happens after a large earthquake, what causes an earthquake, how most people are injured during an earthquake, how many times in an average year the U.S. experiences an earthquake, what states and parts of the U.S. usually have the most earthquakes, where the largest U.S. earthquakes have been located, what The Richter Scale is, and the estimated dollar-amount an earthquake in the U.S. might cost if a large earthquake hit a major city. It names California as the state experiencing the most earthquake events causing damage, but Alaska the state with the most powerful and most frequent earthquakes. It names the New Madrid, Missouri 1811-1812 earthquake events as the greatest magnitude in U.S. history.
    *Source FEMA: “Earthquake Fast Facts”
  21. http://www.scemd.org/library/disastermitigation/earthquake/eqbackgrounder.pdf
    Did you know 41 to 45 (opinions vary) U.S. states/territories are at moderate-very high risk for earthquake, with all 50 states and all U.S. territories considered at risk for an earthquake? Several states experience more earthquakes than others—California has the most earthquakes causing damage, but Alaska has the most large earthquakes, usually in unpopulated areas.
    *Source The South Carolina Emergency Management Department, “What is an earthquake?”
  22. http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/earthq1/how.html
    This article sums up what occurs during an earthquake and then uses specific examples of famous earthquakes and their damage to further explain earthquake terms, such as faults, focal depth, epicenter, tsunamis, liquefaction, and landslides.
    *Source U.S. Geological Survey, “How Earthquakes Happen”, article maintained by John Watson and Kathie Watson
  23. http://science.howstuffworks.com/nature/natural-disasters/earthquake2.htm
    In the old days, many theories about why an earthquake happened sound plain silly to us today. But learning how and why an earthquake occurs began to come together in the mid-60s. This new way of thinking was called plate tectonics.
    Source HowStuffWorks, “Plate Tectonics”
  24. http://science.howstuffworks.com/nature/natural-disasters/earthquake4.htm
    When you think of waves, you might think of the ocean or of someone signaling a friendly good-bye, but do you think of an earthquake? This short article explains the different types of waves related to an earthquake.
    Source HowStuffWorks, “Seismic Waves”
  25. http://science.howstuffworks.com/nature/natural-disasters/earthquake5.htm
    The science of figuring out an earthquake’s origin is explained in this short, but easy-to-understand article. Warning: a lot of scientific terms ahead, but you can handle it!
    Source HowStuffWorks, “Seismology”
  26. http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/earthq1/measure.html
    This article uses a number of familiar earthquakes to explain how the magnitude is measured in an earthquake and how damage can drastically vary, depending on many different factors, such as location, geographic conditions, and building or road types.
    *Source U.S. Geological Survey, “Measuring Earthquakes”, article maintained by John Watson and Kathie Watson
  27. http://www.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=4892
    This article does an excellent job giving many interesting facts about an earthquake and about earthquake damage, then giving a list of what someone might experience during the different levels of earthquake magnitudes.
    Source Scholastic.com, “Measuring Earthquakes”, Scholastic News For Kids Online
  28. http://science.howstuffworks.com/nature/natural-disasters/earthquake6.htm
    The Richter Scale’s the topic for this article. Enough said!
    Source HowStuffWorks, “Richter Scale”
  29. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=how-was-the-richter-scale
    Read more about the origin of the Richter Scale, written by a seismologist.
    Source Scientific American, “How was the Richter Scale for measuring earthquakes developed?”, by William Menke, seismologist, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, April 11, 2005
  30. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=experts-how-earthquakes-stop
    Kids always ask the best questions. Of course, they might wonder how an earthquake begins, but they might also ask: how does an earthquake end?
    Source Scientific American, “How do earthquakes stop?”, by David Oglesby, geophysicist, University of California (Riverside), April 9, 2008
  31. http://www.scec.org/education/public/allmyths.html
    Seven common myths are addressed here, making for an interesting read for all ages and levels of earthquake knowledge.
    Source Earthquake Myths, from booklet: “Putting Down Roots in Earthquake Country”, by the Southern California Earthquake Center and the U.S. Geological Survey, 2011
  32. http://science.howstuffworks.com/nature/natural-disasters/earthquake7.htm
    Toads—yes, toads. In Italy in 2009, toads apparently felt an earthquake coming. Believe it…or not! Scientists can manage some odds for figuring out where an earthquake might occur, but no perfect formula has been found. Read this article and see what you think—can we predict an earthquake?
    Source HowStuffWorks, “Predicting Earthquakes”
  33. http://science.howstuffworks.com/nature/natural-disasters/earthquake8.htm
    Read about ways engineering is working toward making construction more earthquake-proof. With a little knowledge and thinking ahead, you can learn how to prepare for an earthquake, just in case.
    Source HowStuffWorks, “Earthquake Preparedness”
  34. FAMOUS EARTHQUAKES (AND U.S. EARTHQUAKES MAKING NEWS)

  35. http://pubsusgs.gov/gip/earthq1/history.html
    This site gives an overview of information about earthquakes throughout modern history, with special mentions of the earthquakes in 1811 and 1812 in New Madrid, Missouri, the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire, and the 1964 Alaska earthquake.
    *Source: U.S. Geological Survey, “Earthquakes in History”, maintained by John Watson and Kathie Watson
  36. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqarchives/year/mag8/magnitude8_1900_date.php
    This site gives an earthquake listing from 1902-2011 of those quakes with Magnitude-8.0 or more. It gives the month/day/year, time of the earthquake, latitude/longitude, magnitude, fatalities, and region where the earthquake occurred.
    *Source U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program, “Magnitude 8 and Greater Earthquakes Since 1900”
  37. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/world/most_destructive.php
    From a 1556 Magnitude 8.0 earthquake in China that killed 830,000, this detailed summary gives a listing of any earthquake that killed 50,000 or more.
    *Source U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program, “Earthquakes with 50,000 or More Deaths”
  38. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/world/world_deaths.php
    This earthquake list is a much longer list than the previous site, because it lists any earthquake that caused 1,000 deaths or more since 1900.
    *Source U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program, “Earthquakes with 1,000 or More Deaths Since 1900”
  39. Back to Table of Contents

    JAPANESE EARTHQUAKE 2011

  40. http://earthquakes.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqinthenews/2011/usc0001xgp/#summary.
    The Honshu, Japan earthquake summarized.
    Source U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program, “Magnitude 9.0—Near The East Coast Of Honshu, Japan” March 11, 2011
  41. http://earthquakes.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqinthenews/2011/usc0001xhz/ The Japanese earthquake details.
    Source U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program, “Magnitude 7.9—Near The East Coast Of Honshu, Japan” March 11, 2011
  42. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=japan-earthquake-moves-seafloor
    The Fukushima, Japan 9.0 earthquake in 2011 reportedly moved its seafloor the length of half a football field.
    Source Scientific American, “Fukushima Earthquake Moved Seafloor Half a Football Field”, by Mark Fischetti, December 1, 2011
  43. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/world/world_deaths.php
    This site is also given above, but gives a detailed description of the Magnitude 9.0 earthquake, which killed an estimated 20,352 people. The tsunami, fires, and nuclear power plant’s severe damage caused more losses of property and life.
    *Source U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program, “Earthquakes with 1,000 or More Deaths since 1900”
  44. http://science.howstuffworks.com/nature/natural-disasters/earthquake.html
    This article names this earthquake the fifth-most powerful of the last century, with the tsunami and nuclear power plant damage adding to the devastation.
    *Source Scientific American, “How Earthquakes Work”, by Tom Harris and Patrick Kiger
  45. http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/cross-check/2011/03/11/japan-earthquake-demonstrates-the-limits
    This blog details specifics from a number of earthquake locations, then delves into the limitations and accomplishments of science in relationship to natural disasters such as these, the lead line about Japan and its earthquake and tsunami.
    Source Scientific American Blogs, Cross-Check, by John Horgan, March 11, 2011, “Japan earthquake demonstrates the limits and power of science”
  46. http://www.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=4892
    The article opens with the Japan Magnitude-9.0 2011 earthquake.
    *Source Scholastic.com, Scholastic News For Kids Online, “Measuring Earthquakes”
  47. http://www.scemd.org/library/disastermitigation/earthquake/eqbackgrounder.pdf
    This earthquake general-information article mentions the Kobe, Japan earthquake happening in an area with a large population, not built to modern earthquake standards and resulting in an estimated $96 billion in damage and killing at least 5,378.
    *Source The South Carolina Emergency Management Department, “What is an earthquake?”
  48. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqinthenews/2011/usc00028pe/
    Japan continued to experience many aftershocks, including a few more powerful additional earthquakes.

    http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqinthenews/2011/usc00028pe/

    Source U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program, “Magnitude 6.6—Off The East Coast of Honshu, Japan”, March 22, 2011

    http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqinthenews/2011/usc0002ksa/

    Source U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program, “Magnitude 7.1—Near The East Coast Of Honshu, Japan”, April 7, 2011

    http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqinthenews/2011/usc0002n9v/

    Source U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program, “Magnitude 6.6—Eastern Honshu, Japan”, April 11, 2011

  49. http://www.mofa.go.jp/j_info/visit/incidents/index.html
    This detailed article breaks down the earthquake impact and plans taken to help the people of Japan, the report written by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan.
    Source Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, “Great East Japan Earthquake”, November 18, 2011, by the Prime Minister of Japan and his Cabinet
  50. Back to Table of Contents

    HAITI EARTHQUAKE 2010

  51. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/recenteqsww/Quakes/us2010rja6.php
    Details of the Haiti earthquake of 2010.
    Source U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards program, “Magnitude 7.0—Haiti Region”
  52. http://usgs.gov/newsroom/article.asp?ID=2679
    This January 1, 2011 press release gives an earthquake summary worldwide for 2010, naming 227,000 people killed by earthquakes and 222,570 of those deaths from the Magnitude-7.0 Haiti earthquake January 12, 2010.
    *Source: U.S. Geological Survey, “Haiti Dominates Earthquake Fatalities in 2010”, U.S. Department of the Interior
  53. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/world/most_destructive.php
    The second listing on this site gives details about the Magnitude 7.0 earthquake in Haiti. It killed an estimated 316,000 (high estimate), with other estimates at less than 100,000. A tsunami killed four more people, with other tsunamis reported in different areas. This earthquake has the most deaths for the most recent of any earthquake on this list.
    *Source U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program, “Earthquakes with 50,000 or More Deaths”
  54. http://www.state.gov/s/hsc/rls/154255.htm
    This very detailed article tells about what happened in Haiti during and after the earthquake. It gives the complications faced by the people of Haiti and the plans and actions taken to help them.
    Source the U.S. Department of State, Office of the Haiti Special Coordinator report, January 10, 2011: “Haiti: One Year Later”
  55. CHILE EARTHQUAKES OF 1906, 1960, (also in 1980 and 1995), and 2010
    1960

  56. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/facts.php
    This list article’s #2 names the 1960 earthquake in Chile, Magnitude-9.5, as the modern world’s most powerful recorded earthquake. #35 mentions the seismic waves this massive earthquake set off world-wide, shaking the entire earth for days!
    *Source U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program, “Earthquake Facts”
  57. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/world/world_deaths.php
    1906 and 1960
    Magnitude 8.2, August 17, 1906: 3,882 deaths (another source lists it causing 20,000 deaths), destroying a large portion of Valparaiso and some reporting the earthquake lasted four minutes. A tsunami occurred afterward.
    Magnitude 9.5, May 22, 1960: 1,655 deaths (other estimates go as high as 5,700 deaths), with worst damage in the Valdivia-Puerto Montt area. The large tsunamis that followed caused deaths and damage in Hawaii, the Philippines, Easter Island, the Samoa Islands, and California, included in the total deaths. The earthquake is named the most powerful in the entire 20th century and resulted in landslides, a volcano eruption, and many other strong earthquakes and aftershocks.
    *Source U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program, “Earthquakes with 1,000 or More Deaths since 1900”
  58. http://www.usgs.gov/newsroom/article.asp?ID=2679
    2010
    This article sums up earthquake information for the year 2010, naming the Magnitude-8.8 February 27, 2010 earthquake offshore Bio-Bio, Chile as the largest for the year. The article compares the deaths and damage by the Chilean earthquake to the more dramatic deaths and damage in Haiti.
    *Source U.S. Geological Survey, “Haiti Dominates Earthquake Fatalities in 2010”, 1/11/2011 press release, the U.S. Department of the Interior
  59. http://chile.usembassy.gov/2010/press0227eng-earthquake.html
    This article gives all the basic facts about the earthquake and the tsunamis that followed the 2010 earthquake, with some facts about Chile and its earthquakes.
    Source Embassy of the United States Santiago, Chile: “Embassy Statement on the February 27 Earthquake in Chile”, March 2010
  60. Back to Table of Contents

    SAN FRANCISO EARTHQUAKE 1906 and 1989

  61. http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/earthq1/how.html
    In San Francisco’s Marina district during the 1989 earthquake, much of the damage resulted from liquefaction. It is explained in this article’s next-to-last paragraph.
    *Source U.S. Geological Survey, “How Earthquakes Happen”, this article maintained by John Watson and Kathie Watson
  62. http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/earthq1/measure.html
    The article uses the 1989 San Francisco (Loma Prieta, more precisely) earthquake damage to show how damage and human casualties can vary according to a number of different factors.
    *Source U.S. Geological Survey, “Measuring Earthquakes”, maintained by John Watson and Kathie Watson
  63. http://www.scemd.org/library/disastermitigation/earthquake/eqbackgrounder.pdf
    The Magnitude-7.1 (Richter scale measurement) Loma Prieta (San Francisco) earthquake in 1989 measured as high as XI (Mercalli scale, with measurements in Roman numerals, from I to XII).
    *Source The South Carolina Emergency Management Department, “What is an earthquake?”
  64. 1906

  65. http://www.tulane.edu/~sanelson/geol204/tsunami.htm
    This article’s Earthquake section talks about why the 1906 Magnitude-7.1 earthquake in San Francisco did NOT set off a tsunami.
    *Source “Tsunami”, by Professor Stephen A. Nelson, Tulane University, Natural Disasters, last updated October 10, 2011
  66. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/facts.php
    On this list of facts, #13 discusses the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and how the fire that followed caused more damage than the earthquake.
    *Source U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program, “Earthquake Facts”
  67. http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/earthq1/history.html
    Mentioned briefly, with two photos of the San Francisco earthquake damage, this article names the 1906 earthquake as one of the most damaging in North American recorded history. The earthquake and fire killed almost 700, nearly destroyed the entire city, and leaving 250,000 without a home.
    *Source U.S. Geological Survey, “Earthquakes in History”, maintained by John Watson and Kathie Watson
  68. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/world/world_deaths.php
    This site gives a small amount of information about the San Francisco Magnitude 7.8 earthquake April 18, 1906, killing 3,000. Fires happening afterward caused most deaths and property damage.
    *Source U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program, “Earthquakes with 1,000 or More Deaths since 1900”
  69. Back to Table of Contents

    NORTHRIDGE, CALIFORNIA EARTHQUAKE 1994

  70. http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/earthq1/measure.html
    The article’s last paragraph mentions this Northridge earthquake in 1994 and how the damage caused such a big variety in the types of building and highway destruction or lack of destruction.
    *Source U.S. Geological Survey, “Measuring Earthquakes”, maintained by John Watson and Kathie Watson
  71. http://www.scemd.org/library/disastermitigation/earthquake/eqbackgrounder.pdf
    This site mentions the January 17, 1994 Northridge earthquake and how it hit an area built with modern standards, yet still suffered an estimated $20 billion in damage.
    *Source The South Carolina Emergency Management Department, “What is an earthquake?”
  72. ALASKA EARTHQUAKE 1964

  73. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/facts.php
    On this list article, #1 talks about this Alaska Magnitude-9.2 earthquake being the largest earthquake recorded in the U.S. #28 says Alaska comes in at #1 for the state with the most earthquakes, averaging at least one Magnitude-7.0 or greater earthquake almost annually and a Magnitude-8.0 or greater every 14 years.
    *Source U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program, “Earthquake Facts”
  74. http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/earthq1/history.html
    The description of the Alaska earthquake sounds terrifying—near the epicenter, the violent shaking snapped off treetops. Though 114 died, many more would’ve died if Alaska cities had been as crowded as the continental cities. The earthquake is believed twice the energy as the 1906 San Francisco earthquake.
    *Source U.S. Geological Survey, “Earthquakes in History”, maintained by John Watson and Kathie Watson
  75. http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/earthq1/how.html
    This article discusses the Alaskan earthquake in the third-to-last and last paragraphs. The earthquake set off tsunamis that caused destruction in other parts of Alaska and all along the North American west coast, most seriously in Crescent City, California. This article’s last paragraph gives a firsthand description of someone experiencing the earthquake and the landslides it caused.
    *Source U.S. Geological Survey, “How Earthquakes Happen”, this article maintained by John Watson and Kathie Watson
  76. http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/earthq1/measure.html
    This gives the firsthand account of a geologist at Valdez, Alaska in 1964 to describe the thud caused by compressional waves, shear waves following that, then the surface waves causing the ground roll. As it explains the Modified Mercalli Scale and how it measures an earthquake’s local intensity, it uses the Alaska 1964 earthquake as an example.
    *Source U.S. Geological Survey, “Measuring Earthquakes”, maintained by John Watson and Kathie Watson
  77. http://www.fema.gov/hazard/earthquake/facts.shtm
    This list of earthquake facts names Alaska as the state having the most large earthquakes, though many occur in unoccupied locations, so property damage and loss of life aren’t as severe as other earthquake damage in the U.S.
    *Source FEMA, “Earthquake Fast Facts”
  78. http://www.scemd.org/library/disastermitigation/earthquake/eqbackgrounder.pdf
    This overview-style earthquake article talks about Alaska being the state with the most frequent large earthquakes.
    *Source The South Carolina Emergency Management Department, “What is an earthquake?”
  79. NEW MADRID, MISSOURI EARTHQUAKES 1811 and 1812

  80. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/facts.php
    On this list article, #22 discusses the New Madrid earthquakes.
    *Source U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program, “Earthquake Facts”
  81. http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/earthq1/history.html
    This article, like many others, names the New Madrid earthquakes as the most widely-experienced in U.S. history, with the estimated Magnitude-8.0 earthquake December 16, 1811, then another powerful earthquake January 23, 1812, then the most powerful February 7, 1812, with aftershocks occurring between and for many months following the last one. Imagine the southeastern Missouri earthquake being felt as faraway as both Boston and Denver!
    *Source U.S. Geological Survey, “Earthquakes in History”, maintained by John Watson and Kathie Watson
  82. http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/earthq1/how.html
    New Madrid, Missouri 1811. Many large earthquakes are followed by other large earthquakes. Though called aftershocks, the resulting earthquakes are often due to deep earthquakes creating new pressure at different points along a fault line.
    *Source U.S. Geological Survey, “How Earthquakes Happen”, this article maintained by John Watson and Kathie Watson
  83. http://www.fema.gov/hazard/earthquake/facts.shtm
    This bulleted list article names the 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquake series as the largest ever felt in the U.S.
    *Source FEMA, “Earthquake Fast Facts”
  84. http://www.scemd.org/library/disastermitigation/earthquake/eqbackgrounder.pdf
    This article covers some overall facts about an earthquake and uses specific U.S. earthquakes to explain different aspects. It names the three months of quakes during 1811 and 1812 along the New Madrid Fault as the largest ever felt in our country, with three Magnitude-8.0 or greater.
    *Source The South Carolina Emergency Management Department, “What is an earthquake?”
  85. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqarchives/poster/2011/20110516.php
    Poster of the New Madrid Earthquake Scenario of 16 May 2011 – Magnitude 7.7.
    Source: USGS Earthquake Hazards Program
  86. Back to Table of Contents

    VIRGINIA EARTHQUAKE 2011

  87. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=why-east-coast-earthquakes-travel-far
    People just don’t expect to feel an earthquake in Washington D.C. Why was the 2011 5.8-magnitude earthquake with its epicenter in Mineral, Virginia felt all over the eastern U.S. and into Canada? I live in Cleveland and happened to be sick in bed, with my head against the headboard. It bumped against my head, so I sat up quickly, didn’t feel anything, then leaned back against the headboard and it did it again. Not long after, I saw what happened online.
    Source “Why Was the Virginia Earthquake Felt So Widely?”, by David Biello, August 24, 2011
  88. http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/observations/2011/08/23/earthquake-shakes-east-coast/
    This blog, written minutes after the earthquake, gives a hands-on account of what happened in New York City.
    Source Scientific American, “Updated: Earthquake Shakes U.S. East Coast”, by David Biello, August 23, 2011
  89. Back to Table of Contents

    OKLAHOMA EARTHQUAKE 2011

  90. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=did-fracking-cause-oklahomas-largest-recorded-earthquake
    Fracking is one of those environmentally-controversial things, where rock is fractured, in order to access fossil fuels. The earthquakes in Oklahoma in 2011 seemed out of the blue. Most people thought: an earthquake in Oklahoma? Could a manmade cause set off the earthquake and the number of aftershocks?
    My family in southwest Missouri felt the earthquakes and aftershocks, a little disconcerting, since we grew up hearing talk of the “big one” happening sometime again in New Madrid, the opposite corner of southern Missouri.
    Source Scientific American, “Did Fracking Cause Oklahoma’s Largest Recorded Earthquake?”, by Charles Q. Choi, November 14, 2011
  91. >EARTHQUAKE PUZZLES, GAMES, AND ACTIVITIES

  92. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/kids/RockShakeyGround.pdf
    This article ends with two easy-to-do and fun activities for kids at home or teachers in classrooms:

    • One experiment is called Peanut Butter and Jelly Sandwich Faults and helps kids understand the sliding and what happens during an earthquake in the earth’s layers.
    • The second experiment is called You Can Make Slinky Waves! and shows how to create “earthquake” waves, using a toy Slinky.

    *Source U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program, article by Lisa Wald

  93. http://www.abag.ca.gov/bayarea/eqmaps/doc/wordsearch/wordsearch.html
    Earthquake Terms Wordsearch Game”: find 14 hidden words related to an earthquake
    Source ABAG, the Association of Bay Area Governments
  94. http://www.ready.gov/kids/fun-games
    This site offers a number of different choices for earthquake-related fun, teaching kids some important material while offering fun ways to learn:

    • a comic strip
    • crossword puzzle
    • matching game
    • hidden treasures
    • Word search
    • coloring pages
    • three wallpapers for your computer
    • and a song about National Preparedness Month

    Source FEMA, Homeland Security, Ready Classroom (Emergency Preparedness Materials for Teachers, Students and Families)

  95. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/teachers/TreasureHunt.pdf
    Practice earthquake preparation and awareness—and have some fun, too! This activity takes the items needed in an earthquake kit and turns it into a treasure hunt.
    Source U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program, “Earthquake Kit Treasure Hunt”, by Wendy Shindle, grades K-5
  96. http://scearthquakes.cofc.edu/educators/factsheets/SCEEPFactSheets_1.pdf
    At the end of the article for Grades 5-8 and 9-12, it gives an activity called Elastic Rebound, simply done with your own hands, or, can be done with another person.
    *Source South Carolina Earthquake Education & Preparedness Program, “Elastic Rebound”
  97. http://scifiles.larc.nasa.gov/docs/guides/guide2b_02.pdf
    Attention, teachers! This 12-page assortment of activities is called The NASA SCI Files, The Case of the Shaky Quake. It sets up the full experience, creating days’ worth of activities and lesson plans to keep kids interested, learning, and having fun. It gives objectives, vocabulary, a video component, career suggestions for kids who love this sort of thing, resources, websites, activities, worksheets, and answer key. Make sure to check out the five activities:

    • Breaking Loose (uses a block of wood, sandpaper, and rubberband to show how an earthquake happens)
    • It’s Not My Fault! (uses cardboard models to learn about three types of earthquake faults)
    • Shaky Quake Cake (uses three cakes, foil pans, and aluminum foil to figure out three types of plate boundaries)
    • Folklore and Legends (discusses legends from India, Mexico, and Native American cultures, suggests further research, then writing “legends” of your own)
    • Got Quakes? (uses string, lidded cup, marbles, stopwatch, and other supplies to create a seismometer and record any movements)

    Source 2002-2003 NASA SCI Files Series, http://scifiles.larc.nasa.gov

  98. http://tlc.discovery.com/covergence/quakes/interactives/makeaquake.html
    In this computer activity, you can create a virtual earthquake and in the process, learn more about how an earthquake affects our world. You may select the geological conditions, building type, and earthquake magnitude.
    Source TLC website, Discovery Communications, LLC, 2011, “Make A Quake: Earthquake Simulator”, interactive computer simulation activity, Grades 3-5, 6-8, 9-12
  99. http://www.nationalgeographic.com/forcesofnature/interactive/index.html?section=e
    This site gives additional activities and information when you click on “Locate An Earthquake” and “Set Off An Earthquake!
    *Source National Geographic website, “Locate An Earthquake” and “Set Off An Earthquake!”
  100. Back to Table of Contents

    WHAT IS A TSUNAMI?

  101. http://ptwc.weather.gov/ptwc/faq.php
    You can find out everything you’re wondering about a tsunami on this FAQ feature by the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center.
    Source NOAA’s National Weather Service, Pacific Tsunami Warning Center, “Frequently Asked Questions”
  102. http://www.tulane.edu/~sanelson/geol204/tsunami.htm
    An excellent A to Z treatment, this paper and lecture notes written by Tulane University Professor Stephen A. Nelson covers a lot of ground in a concise, interesting manner. It begins with talking about the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, the 2009 Samoa earthquake, the 2010 8.8 Chile earthquake that caused a tsunami known to kill at least 50, and the 2011 9.0 Japan earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear disaster. The tsunami definition gets into the scientific nitty-gritty terms and formulas. It moves toward discussing what sets off a tsunami—an earthquake, volcano, landslide, explosion underwater, or impact by meteorite. The articles finishes with material about predicting and warning about a tsunami and rules on how to stay safe.
    *Source “Tsunami”, by Professor Stephen A. Nelson, Tulane University, Natural Disasters, last updated October 10, 2011
  103. http://www.nws.noaa.gov/om/brochures/tsunami.htm
    This quick overview defines a tsunami, describes a tsunami’s effects, mentions damage from specific tsunamis, and explains the TWS (the Tsunami Warning System in the Pacific) and the PTWC (the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center, the operational center for TWS).
    Source U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), National Weather Service, Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, and International Tsunami Center, “Tsunami: the Great Waves” brochure
  104. http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/tsunami.html
    If you need a super-fast explanation, with a few tsunami stats thrown in, try this site. It defines a tsunami, what causes a tsunami, mentions the 2004 Sumatra Tsunami, and names the world’s largest tsunami—the 278-feet-high 1971 tsunami, Ishigaki Island, Japan.
    *Source NOAA, “What is a tsunami?”
  105. http://wcatwc.arh.noaa.gov/faq/frequently.php
    Need tsunami information fast? This is your site. This FAQ answers tsunami questions, explaining what a tsunami is and every aspect about a tsunami’s origin, how a tsunami travels, the size of a tsunami, and what a tsunami looks like.
    Source West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center, NOAA’s National Weather Service, “West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Information”, last updated June 2011
  106. http://www.tsunamifacts.org/2011/03/welcome-to-tsunami-facts.html
    This well-written, short information defines a tsunami, discusses potentials causes for a tsunami and where a tsunami most often occurs, and gives the speed at which a tsunami may pass across the ocean.
    Source Tsunami Facts, 2011
  107. http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/natural-disasters/tsunami-profile/
    A tsunami is _______: do you need this question answered? This site also gives the locations where most tsunamis occur, what causes a tsunami, what a tsunami might look like, how fast it travels and how it travels, and finishes with mentioning the Pacific Tsunami Warning System, a system of monitoring seismic activity and seawater, with the cooperation of 26 countries and headquarters in Hawaii.
    Source National Geographic Society, 1996-2011, “Tsunamis, Killer Waves”
  108. http://www.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/asiapcf/03/12/explainer.tsunami.japan/index.html
    Click on the different screens here to answer the big question and cover aspects of a tsunami: “What is a tsunami?”, “Initiation”, “Split” and “Amplification”, and “Run-up”. No idea what those last four terms mean? You will. Each one is explained quickly and clearly.
    Source CNN World, “What is a tsunami? Tsunamis explained”, March 12, 2011
  109. http://www.ess.washington.edu/tsunami/general/physics/meaning.html
    This short material gives the English translation for the Japanese word tsunami: “harbor wave”. It also defines “tidal wave” (not the same thing as a tsunami) and “seismic sea waves”.
    Source the University of Washington, Department of Earth and Space Sciences, “Tsunami!” and “What does ‘tsunami’ mean?”
  110. http://www.consrv.ca.gov/cgs/information/publications/cgs_notes/Documents/CGS_Note_55.pdf
    This excellent, sectioned article answers, “What is a tsunami?”, gives warning signs for a tsunami, tells the story of a 10-year-old girl from Great Britain who saved her family’s life during the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, and then gives specific tsunami information related to California.
    *Source California Geological Survey, California Department of Conservation, 2009, “Tsunamis, Note 55” and “Tsunami Hazards in California”
  111. http://www.oregongeology.org/pubs/tsubrochures/TsunamiBrochure.pdf
    A brochure by Oregon Emergency Management, you can read a lot of good information in a short amount of time. It answers the two big questions: “What is a tsunami?” and “What should I do?”. It also explains timing for a tsunami, describes the two tsunami types, gives evacuation tips, and explains what to put into an emergency kit.
    *Source the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries, in cooperation with Oregon Emergency Management, funded by NOAA, “Tsunami! Know how to survive on the Oregon Coast”
  112. http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/earthq1/how.html
    The third-to-last paragraph of this article talks about earthquakes sometimes setting off giant waves, called tsunamis.
    *Source U.S. Geological Survey, “How Earthquakes Happen”
  113. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/facts.php
    This list article’s #9 defines the differences between a tsunami and a tidal wave.
    *Source U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program, “Earthquake Facts”
  114. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2011/03/110311-tsunami-facts-japan-earthquake-hawaii#
    This article defines a tsunami and discusses the amazing speed of a tsunami, warning signs of a tsunami, and practical ways someone can survive a tsunami. It also talks about some of the most devastating tsunamis.
    *Source National Geographic Daily News, “Tsunami Facts in Wake of Japan Earthquake”, March 11, 2011
  115. Back to Table of Contents

    TSUNAMI FACTS

  116. http://www.noaa.gov/factsheets/new%20version/tsunamis.pdf
    This article names a tsunami as one of nature’s most infrequent and most irregular disasters. But even so, the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) started developing a warning system in 1946. Today, two centers issue tsunami information: the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (Palmer, Alaska) and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (Ewa Beach, Hawaii), both resulting from the 1946 and 1964 earthquakes and tsunamis in those areas. This article explains DART (Deepocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis) network.
    *Source National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, “NOAA Knows…Tsunamis”
  117. http://www.tsunami.noaa.gov/terminology.html
    This listing of tsunami-related words and phrases includes definitions and sites where you can learn even more.
    Source NOAA (National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration), “Tsunami Vocabulary and Terminology”
  118. http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/pubs/PDF/bern3168/bern3168.pdf
    You probably don’t want to wade through all 40 pages, but you can find some good stuff here. It includes data about financial impact of a tsunami, as well as giving information about tsunami forecasting/warning, the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program, tsunami research, and Global Tsunami Warning and Mitigation Network.
    Source NOAA’s Tsunami Program 2008-2017 Strategic Plan, July 2008, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, DC
  119. http://www.tsunamifacts.org/p/about-us.html
    If you want to know what a tsunami is and what you should do before, during, and after a tsunami, this tightly-written article will give you a quick education about a tsunami.
    Source Tsunami Facts, About Us, 2011
  120. http://www.ema.gov.au/www/ema/schools.nsf/Page/Get_The_FactsTsunami
    Issued by the Australian Government, this material gives a great overview about a tsunami. It answers what might cause a tsunami, where a tsunami might occur, the speed of a tsunami, the size of a tsunami, how tsunami waves differ from regular ocean waves. This article gives details about a number of different tsunami events: the February 2010 Chile 8.8 earthquake and tsunami, the September 2009 Samoa 8.0 earthquake and tsunami, the April 2007 Solomon Islands 8.1 earthquake and tsunami, the December 2004 Indonesia/Indian Ocean 9.0 earthquake and tsunami, and the Papua New Guinea July 1998 7.0 earthquake and tsunami.
    Source the Australian Government Attorney-General’s Department, Emergency Management For Schools, “Tsunami—Get the Facts”
  121. http://www.redcross.org/www-files/Documents/pdf/Preparedness/checklists/Tsunami.pdf
    If you read and need ONE source about tsunamis, try this one. It defines a tsunami, then gives all the advice on what to do before, during, and after a tsunami. It also gives warning signs of a tsunami, gives suggestions on where to find out more information during tsunami danger, mentions The International Tsunami Warning System, and suggests how to contact family.
    Source Red Cross Ready, the American National Red Cross, 2010, “Tsunami Safety Checklist”
  122. http://www.redcross.org/portal/site/en/menuitem.86f46a12f382290517a8f210b80f78a0/?vgnextoid=92d51a53f1c37110VgnVCM1000003481a10aRCRD
    How can you and your family prepare for a tsunami? Whether you live in a tsunami-risk area or you are visiting an area prone to a tsunami, this site gives tips for smart ways to prepare ahead of time.
    Source Red Cross Ready, The American National Red Cross, 2011, “Tsunami Safety—Preparedness Fast Facts/Tsunami: How can I prepare ahead of time?”
  123. http://www.redcross.org/portal/site/en/menuitem.53fabf6cc033f17a2b1ecfbf43181aa0/?vgnextoid=65092aebdaadb110VgnVCM10000089f0870aRCRD&currPage=96e83a56d35ae210VgnVCM10000089f0870aRCRD
    What if you feel an earthquake and you’re along a coast—what do you do? Read this article and you’ll know what you need to do to stay safe.
    Source Red Cross Ready, The American National Red Cross, 2011, “Tsunami Safety—Preparedness Fast Facts/Tsunami: What should I do during a potential tsunami situation?”
  124. http://www.redcross.org/portal/site/en/menuitem.53fabf6cc033f17a2b1ecfbf43181aa0/?vgnextoid=65092aebdaadb110VgnVCM10000089f0870aRCRD&currPage=a9393a56d35ae210VgnVCM10000089f0870aRCRD
    You’ve survived a worst-case scenario—a tsunami. What now? This advice can help you and those around you.
    Source Red Cross Ready, The American National Red Cross, 2011, “Tsunami Safety—Preparedness Fast Facts/Tsunami: What do I do after a tsunami?”
  125. http://ioc3.unesco.org/itic/categories.php?category_no=166
    Where in the world might you be at risk for a tsunami? This International Tsunami Information Center (ITIC) article gives you everything you need to know, showing the risk levels for different zones.
    Source the International Tsunami Information Center (ITIC), Honolulu, Hawaii, 2011, “Am I in Danger? Tsunami Risk Zones”
  126. http://www.dosomething.org/tipsandtools/11-facts-about-tsunamis
    This list of “11 Facts About Tsunamis” gives general information about a tsunami and mentions Hawaii as the U.S. state most at risk for a tsunami, as well as briefly mentioning the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and the 2011 Japan tsunami following its earthquake.
    *Source dosomething.org, using National Geographic, FEMA, and CNN as sources, “11 Facts About Tsunamis”
  127. http://ioc3.unesco.org/itic/categories.php?category_no=195
    If you know what to watch out for, you can use your common sense and your senses to make safe decisions. This easy-to-read article gives a number of signs in nature that might precede a tsunami.
    Source the International Tsunami Information Center (ITIC), Honolulu, Hawaii, 2011, “Am I in Danger? Natural warning signs: Sensing a Tsunami”
  128. http://ioc3.unesco.org/itic/categories.php?category_no=167
    In the emergency situation when you’re trying to survive a tsunami, one basic question seems most important: how far will the water reach? This informational article explains the variables and gives an illustration to show what a tsunami does upon reaching land.
    Source the International Tsunami Information Center (ITIC), Honolulu, Hawaii, 2011, “Am I in Danger? Where Will the Water Reach?’
  129. http://ioc3.unesco.org/itic/files/tsunami_safety_rules.pdf
    This list of ten rules gives you a Top 10-type of list of things to remember in case of tsunami danger.
    Source the International Tsunami Information Center (ITIC), Honolulu, Hawaii, 2011, “What to do? Tsunami Safety Rules”
  130. http://ioc3.unesco.org/itic/files/tsunami_preparedness.pdf
    This shorter list of six basic rules gives someone ways to prepare before a tsunami.
    Source the International Tsunami Information Center (ITIC), Honolulu, Hawaii, 2011, “What to do? Before a tsunami: Tsunami Preparedness”
  131. http://www.ess.washington.edu/tsunami/general/physics/other.html
    Besides an earthquake, what else can cause a tsunami? A tsunami can also be set off by a landslide, volcano eruption, or even some type of cosmic-object impacting the sea.
    *Source the University of Washington, Department of Earth and Space Sciences, “How do landslides, volcanic eruptions, and cosmic collisions generate tsunamis?”
  132. http://ioc3.unesco.org/itic/files/Regional%20and%20local%20tsunamis%20cauing%202000%20or%20more%20deaths.pdf
    This tsunami list from the year 365 through 2004 gives the locations for every tsunami killing 2,000 or more, including those deaths caused by the earthquake or volcano.
    Source International Tsunami Information Center (ITIC), Honolulu, Hawaii, 2005, hosted by the U.S. National Weather Service of NOAA, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, updated 8/19/08 by writer Tammy Kaitoku
  133. http://www.bom.gov.au/tsunami/info/index.shtml
    An in-depth article by the Australian Government, if you need more scientific answers to questions for anything more technical, check out this one. It covers what a tsunami is, a tsunami’s physics, what happens as a tsunami nears land, how a tsunami is measured/observed, and mentions the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. One part of the article discusses DART, the Deep-Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis, a system of stations throughout the Pacific Ocean to record tsunamis still at-sea, started in 1995 by the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). The information transmits to PTWC (Pacific Tsunami Warning Center).
    *Source Australian Government Bureau of Meteorology, “Tsunami Facts and Information”, Commonwealth of Australia 2011
  134. Back to Table of Contents

    TSUNAMI EVENTS—AND POTENTIAL EVENTS

  135. http://www.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/asiapcf/03/12/explainer.tsunami.japan/index.html
    This site features a click-on world map, where you can read stats about the worst tsunamis in modern history, including Indonesia in 2010 (Magnitude-7.7 earthquake, then tsunami; 449 estimated deaths), The Philippines in 1976 (Magnitude-8.0 earthquake, then tsunami; 4,000-8,000 estimated deaths), Chile in 1960 (Magnitude-9.5 earthquake, then tsunami; 1,500 estimated deaths).
    Source CNN World, U.S. edition, “What is a tsunami?”, March 12, 2011
  136. http://www.tulane.edu/~sanelson/geol204/tsunami.htm
    Written by a college professor, this article contains plenty of technical details, yet makes an enjoyable read, due to a conversational tone. The thorough coverage on the most well-known tsunami in recent history gives a good overview of each event, including the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the 2009 Samoa earthquake, the 2010 Chile earthquake and tsunami, the 2011 Japan earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear disaster, as well as the 1946 Alaska earthquake and tsunami, the 1960 Chile earthquake and tsunami, the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami, and the 1992 Nicaragua earthquake and tsunami. It adds the 1883 volcanic eruption between Java and Sumatra and its three (or more) resulting tsunamis, the 1958 Alaska landslide and tsunami, and nuclear testing in the 1940s-1950s in the Marshall Islands causing tsunamis.
    *Source “Tsunami”, by Professor Stephen A. Nelson, Tulane University, Natural Disasters, last updated October 10, 2011
  137. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/fs150-00/
    Helping Coastal Communities at Risk from Tsunamis—The Role of U.S. Geological Survey Research” discusses the 1946, 1960, and 1964 tsunami damage and trying to prevent anything like this from ever happening again. This fact sheet also gives a lot of solid knowledge about a tsunami.
    Source U.S. Geological Survey, Fact Sheet 150-00, 2000, by Eric L. Geist, Guy R. Gelfenbaum, Bruce E. Jaffe, and Jane A. Reid
  138. http://oregonstate.edu/ua/ncs/archives/2009/oct/prepare-now-survive-west-coast-tsunami
    This great advice for those living on the Oregon coast can be applied to anyone living along a coastline. Before something happens is the time for asking, “What if?” If there’s ever the “Big One” and it results in a tsunami, this article tells you exactly what you need to know and need to do.
    Source Oregon State University Extension Service, by Patrick Corcoran, “Prepare Now To Survive A West Coast Tsunami”
  139. Back to Table of Contents

    SOUTH PACIFIC TSUNAMI 2009

  140. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=tonga-samoa-earthquakes
    On September 29, 2009, a Magnitude-8.1 earthquake happened in the South Pacific between Tonga, Samoa, and American Samoa, followed by “twin” Magnitude-7.8 earthquakes. This created tsunami waves, killing almost 200 on the islands.
    Source Scientific American, “Double Shake: Multiple, Nearly Simultaneous Earthquakes Triggered Deadly 2009 Tsunami”, by John Matson, August 18, 2010
  141. http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/earthq1/how.html
    In this article’s third-to-last paragraph, it talks about how a tsunami can be caused after an earthquake and why a tsunami can travel so fast and so far. It uses the specific example of what happened after the 1964 Alaskan earthquake, when coastal communities in Kodiak, Cordova, and Seward, Alaska received major damage from the resulting tsunami. The damage spread all along the entire North American west coast, with the worst damage in Crescent City, California.
    *Source U.S. Geological Society, “How Earthquakes Happen”, article maintained by John Watson and Kathie Watson
  142. http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/2006/21/gip-21.pdf
    Many people talk about California’s risk for a monumental earthquake (“The Big One”), but could California also be in danger of experiencing a monumental tsunami?
    Source U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of the Interior, “Earthquake Science Explained, A Series of Ten Short Articles for Students, Teachers, and Families”, compiled by Matthew A. d’Alessio, the San Francisco Chronicle, September 12, 2005 to November 14, 2005 series, “Feature 7: Bay Area Tsunamis: Are we at risk?”, by Eric Geist and Anne Rosenthal
  143. http://www.tulane.edu/~sanelson/geol204/tsunami.htm
    This professor’s article uses the Samoa earthquake and tsunami as part of his treatment for explaining a tsunami.
    *Source “Tsunami”, by Professor Stephen A. Nelson, Tulane University, Natural Disasters, last updated October 10, 2011
  144. CALIFORNIA TSUNAMI 2006 and 1964

  145. http://www.consrv.ca.gov/cgs/information/publications/cgs_notes/Documents/CGS_Note_55.pdf
    On November 15, 2006, a tsunami resulting from a Magnitude-8.3 Kuril Islands earthquake caused $20 million damage to a Crescent City, California boat harbor.
    After the 1964 Alaska earthquake, a tsunami resulting from it killed 12 in California March 28, 1964. The worst devastation happened in Crescent City, California, where a 20-feet-high wave surged over 29 blocks.
    *Source the California Department of Conservation, the California Geological Survey, 2009, “Tsunami Hazards in California”, part of “Tsunamis, Note 55”
  146. http://www.tulane.edu/~sanelson/geol204/tsunami.htm
    A 9.2 (Moment magnitude) earthquake in Alaska caused a tsunami all along the Alaskan coast, yet only killing 122, due to the small population. The tsunami warning worked in Crescent City, California. The residents moved to high ground and saw four waves of tsunami destroy the town. Many thought the tsunami was over and moved down to check out their personal property, with a fifth wave—the largest of all—coming in and killing 12.
    *Source “Tsunami”, by Professor Stephen A. Nelson, Tulane University, Natural Disasters, last updated October 10, 2011
  147. NICARAGUA TSUNAMI 1992

  148. http://www.tulane.edu/~sanelson/geol204/tsunami.htm
    On September 2, 1992, a Magnitude-7.0 earthquake shook off-coast in Nicaragua. Most people didn’t feel the earthquake, due to its location. But it set off a tsunami, giving Nicaraguans little warning and killing 150. The details are in this professor’s paper’s Earthquake section.
    *Source “Tsunami”, by Professor Stephen A. Nelson, Tulane University, Natural Disasters, last updated October 10, 2011
  149. Back to Table of Contents

    HAWAII TSUNAMI 1960 and 1946

  150. http://www.oregongeology.org/pubs/tsubrochures/TsunamiBrochure.pdf
    This brochure explaining what a tsunami is and what to do in case of a tsunami makes mention and adds a photo of the 1960 Hilo, Hawaii tsunami damage that resulted from the 1960 Chile earthquake.
    *Source the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries, in cooperation with Oregon Emergency Management, funded by the NOAA, “Tsunami! Know how to survive on the Oregon Coast”
  151. http://www.dosomething.org/tipsandtools/11-facts-about-tsunamis
    This list article names Hawaii as the state most prone for a tsunami, averaging approximately one tsunami each year and a damaging tsunami once every seven years. #9 on the list names the April 1, 1946 tsunami hitting Hawaii’s Hilo Island as the largest to ever hit Hawaii. Its 30-feet-high, 500 miles-per-hour waves killed 170.
    *Source dosomething.org, “11 Facts About Tsunamis”, using sources: National Geographic, FEMA, and CNN
  152. http://www.tulane.edu/~sanelson/geol204/tsunami.htm
    In this paper’s Earthquake section, it discusses how a 7.3 Alaska earthquake in 1946 caused a tsunami that did some damage in Alaska, but moved toward Hawaii, where it hit Hilo, a city on the Big Island, killing 159 and doing $25 million damage.
    The paper also details the 9.5 Chile earthquake setting off three waves of tsunami, killing 909, with another 834 missing. The tsunami warning system worked in Hawaii, but many sightseers waited for the tsunami to come in from South America. The tsunami killed 61 in Hawaii. It continued to Japan, killing another 185.
    *Source “Tsunami”, by Professor Stephen A. Nelson, Tulane University, Natural Disasters, last updated October 10, 2011
  153. http://www.noaa.gov/factsheets/new%20version/tsunamis.pdf
    In 1946, a tsunami killed more than 150 in Hawaii, but that tragedy resulted in the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) developing the Richard H. Hagemeyer Pacific Warning System in 1949.
    *Source National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, “NOAA Knows…Tsunamis”
  154. ALASKA TSUNAMI 1964 and 1958

  155. http://www.noaa.gov/factsheets/new%20version/tsunamis.pdf
    It’s shocking to hear that the 1964 Alaska Magnitude-9.2 earthquake didn’t kill as many people as the resulting tsunami. The earthquake killed ten. But the tsunami killed 122. But because of what happened, in 1967, the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) opened the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center in Palmer, Alaska.
    *Source National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, “NOAA Knows…Tsunamis”
  156. http://www.ess.washington.edu/tsunami/general/physics/other.html
    In Lituya Bay, Alaska July 9, 1958, an earthquake set off a rockslide, the landslide from that setting off a tsunami. It toppled trees all along the bay, then the tsunami tamed as it spread out into the Gulf of Alaska.
    *Source the University of Washington, Department of Earth and Space Sciences, “How do landslides, volcanic eruptions, and cosmic collisions generate tsunamis?”
  157. Back to Table of Contents

    JAVA/SUMATRA TSUNAMI 1883

  158. http://www.tulane.edu/~sanelson/geol204/tsunami.htm
    In this professor’s paper’s Volcanic Eruption section, he discusses a volcano erupting and setting off three or more tsunamis, killing 36,417.
    *Source “Tsunami”, by Professor Stephen A. Nelson, Tulane University, Natural Disasters, last updated October 10, 2011
  159. THE JAPANESE TSUNAMI OF 2011

  160. http://nthmp.tsunami.gov/taw/downloads/japan-earthquake-3-17-2011.pdf
    This complete account of what happened in Japan also covers what we can learn about the Japanese earthquake and tsunami, written by FEMA.
    Source “The Japan Earthquake & Tsunami And What They Mean For The U.S.”, FEMA (the Federal Emergency Management Agency) and the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program
  161. http://itic.iocunesco.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1713&Itemid=2376&lang=en
    This International Tsunami Information Center article gives the scientific details and real-time data for the tsunami resulting from the massive earthquake, along with information about other Japan tsunamis and worldwide data.
    Source the International Tsunami Information Center (ITIC), Honolulu, Hawaii, 2011, “11 March 2011, MW 9.0, Near the East Coast of Honshu Japan Tsunami”
  162. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2011/03/110311-tsunami-facts-japan-earthquake-hawaii#
    The Japan tsunami followed a 8.9 (or 9.0, according to other sources) earthquake. This article also mentions the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and defines a tsunami, discusses the speed of a tsunami, lists some of the most devastating tsunamis in history, gives warning signs of a tsunami, and names ways to survive a tsunami.
    *Source National Geographic Daily News, “Tsunami Facts in Wake of Japan Earthquake”, March 22, 2011
  163. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=japan-earthquake-tsunami-waves
    This source uses the specific facts about the 9.0 Japanese earthquake and the powerful tsunami that followed in order to explain a tsunami and how an earthquake and a tsunami are often linked together in nature. The tsunami that followed the Japanese earthquake reached the U.S. West Coast.
    Source “How Does An Earthquake Trigger Tsunamis Thousands of Kilometers Away”, by Larry Greenemeier, March 11, 2011
  164. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=japan-earthquake-moves-seafloor
    It’s shocking and dramatic: the powerful Japanese earthquake and resulting tsnumai actually shifted the local seafloor approximately 50 meters laterally, plus 16 meters vertically. The article also mentions the severe damage to nuclear reactors and categorizes the tsunami as “monster”.
    *Source Scientific American, “Fukushima Earthquake Moved Seafloor Half a Football Field”, by Mark Fischetti, December 1, 2011
  165. http://news.discovery.com/earth/tsunami-debris-floating-fast-towards-hawaii-111025.html
    With photos and lots of interesting details, this article talks about the millions of tons of debris from the earthquake in Japan, now in the Pacific Ocean after being swept out to sea by the tsunami.
    Source Discovery Channel, “Tsunami Debris Floating Fast Toward Hawaii”, by Tim Wall, October 25, 2011
  166. http://www.tulane.edu/~sanelson/geol204/tsunami.htm
    As most articles about a tsunami do, this paper uses what happened in Japan in 2011 as part of its discussion about a tsunami. This one’s especially well-written and should appeal to anyone wanting a lot of details.
    *Source “Tsunami”, by Professor Stephen A. Nelson, Tulane University, Natural Disasters, last updated October 10, 2011
  167. Back to Table of Contents

    INDIAN OCEAN TSUNAMI OF 2004

  168. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2011/03/110311-tsunami-facts-japan-earthquake-hawaii#
    This news feature discusses the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and the loss of more than 200,000 lives.
    *Source National Geographic Daily News, “Tsunami Facts in Wake of Japan Earthquake”, March 11, 2011
  169. http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/tsunami.html
    In just a few paragraphs, this defines a tsunami and gives details about the December 26, 2004 Sumatra Tsunami, following a Magnitude-9.0 (or greater) earthquake. Some waves reached more than 35-1/2 feet high. The tsunami spread around the entire globe in only one day, with 230,000 (estimated) losing their lives. Three satellite images of the earth show photos of the tsunami as it progressed across the world.
    *Source NOAA, “What is a tsunami?”
  170. http://www.noaa.gov/factsheets/new%20version/tsunamis.pdf
    This article focuses upon tsunami warning systems and how and why those have been developed, noting the December 2004 Indian Ocean tragedy as proof that the world needs a more comprehensive system.
    *Source National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, “NOAA Knows…Tsunamis”
  171. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=tsunami-wave-of-change
    The December 26, 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami killed more than 225,000, one of the worst disasters in our modern history.`
    Source Scientific American, “A Guide to Earthquakes”, September 15, 2008, and “Tsunami: Wave of Change”, by Eric L. Geist, Vasily V. Titov, and Costas E. Synotakis, December 26, 2005
  172. http://www.consrv.ca.gov/cgs/information/publications/cgs_notes/Documents/CGS_Note_55.pdf
    In the “What is a tsunami?” first section, this information talks about the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and how it killed more than 200,000, in eleven countries. In “Tsunami Hero, The Story of 10-Year-Old Tilly Smith”, kids can read about a girl who saved her family and others from the tsunami, because she noticed the ocean bubbling and knew that could mean a possible tsunami on its way. She learned this warning sign of a tsunami in her geography class in Great Britain only two weeks before their vacation there.
    *Source the California Department of Conservation, the California Geological Survey, 2009, “Tsunamis, Note 55”
  173. http://www.tulane.edu/~sanelson/geol204/tsunami.htm
    This professor’s thorough paper about tsunami begins with what happened December 2004 in the Indian Ocean. In the middle of the paper’s section, Earthquakes, the professor mentions the Indian Ocean being the most deadly and most well-known tsunami created after an earthquake. Near the end of the paper, the professor discusses warning systems and uses the Indian Ocean tsunami during that portion, too.
    *Source “Tsunami”, by Professor Stephen A. Nelson, Tulane University, Natural Disaster, last updated October 10, 2011
  174. http://www.bom.gov.au/tsunami/info/index.shtml
    This detailed article gives rich scientific material about the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and how it spread throughout the world. With illustrations and more technical material than usually written about the tsunami, you might read something here you’ve never read anywhere before.
    *Source Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology, “Tsunami Facts and Information”, Commonwealth of Australia, 2011
  175. http://nctr.pmel.noaa.gov/faq_display.php
    These FAQs delves into all issues about the December 2004 tsunami in an easy-to-read format.
    Source NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Center for Tsunami Research, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, DC
  176. http://www.dosomething.org/tipsandtools/11-facts-about-tsunamis
    On #10 of this list article, the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami resulting from the earthquake is said to equal the energy of 23,000 atomic bombs. The tsunami spread to eleven countries in one day, killing 150,000 that first day and, eventually, 283,000 by some estimates.
    *Source dosomething.org, “11 Facts About Tsunamis”, sources used: National Geographic, FEMA, and CNN
  177. Back to Table of Contents

    TSUNAMI PUZZLES, GAMES, AND ACTIVITIES

  178. http://www.tsunami.noaa.gov/pdfs/Tsunami-Trivia.pdf
    This “Tsunami Trivia” sheet has four lines with four pictures each and asks a student to circle the correct picture answer. At the bottom of the page, a word search contains 12 words related to a tsunami and safety, with the leftover 25 letters on the word search used at the very bottom for decoding a message.
    Source National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, Washington, NOAA, FEMA, and U.S. Geological Survey)
  179. http://www.consrv.ca.gov/cgs/geologic_hazards/Tsunami/Pages/student_activity.aspx
    You’ll find many, many activities for students, with activity sheets and booklets, worksheets and curriculum, and resources for general education about a tsunami. A treasure trove for lesson plans about tsunami.
    Source State of California, Department of Conservation, “CGS Tsunami Education and Information”, 2007
  180. http://www.eduplace.com/activity/wave.html
    This “Let’s Make Waves” science activity studies how waves move through water. You will need some simple supplies, including pans, a fan, and marbles.
    Source Education Place, 1997-2002 Houghton Mifflin Company, “Let’s Make Waves”
  181. http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/2006/21/gip-21.pdf
    Contained in this longer material, you can find educational, simple newspaper activities that relate to earthquake and tsunami knowledge:

    • Page 7 Newspaper Activity: “tsunami” is a word with Japanese origin; the American English language adopts many words from non-English origins. Look through the newspaper—how many non-English words can you find?
    • -Page 7 “Tsunamis in your classroom”: fill a baking dish or plastic tub’s bottom with water, then tip up one end, lowering the rest of the dish or pan in order to create waves. Figure out the speed of the waves, using a ruler and stopwatch. Vary the water in the dish or pan and re-calculate wave speed.
    • -Page 7 “1906 tsunami simulation” http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/tsunami/1906.html

    *Source “Earthquake Science Explained, Ten Short Articles for Students, Teachers, and Families”, U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, San Francisco Chronicle In Education, newspaper activities by Elizabeth Coleman (San Francisco Chronicle), September 12, 2005 to November 14, 2005

  182. http://www.tsunami.noaa.gov/pdfs/tommy_tsunami_coloring_book.pdf
    OK, OK, if you’re 12, you probably won’t be interested in a coloring book with characters named Tommy Tsunami and Ernie Earthquake. But maybe your sister is four or your brother is six. Print off this coloring book for them! Or teachers, see if these tsunami coloring pages will work for your class.
    Source “Presenting…Tommy Tsunami and Ernie Earthquake”, original concept/drawings by Jewell Hermon; PDF version by Karen Birchfield, NOAA
  183. http://www.tsunami.noaa.gov/teacher-resources.html
    This is a list of websites and books relating to a tsunami. Teachers should be able to find good ideas here for lesson plans on tsunamis, gathered on one site.
    Source The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), “Tsunami: Resources for Teachers”
  184. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/extra/teachers/lessonplans/science/tsunamis.html
    This complete tsunami lesson plan starts with creating waves, using a large tank and dropping in rocks or other objects. Students will also create posters about the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Students can be encouraged to make a model tsunami for a science fair project.
    Source PBS TeacherSource, MacNeil-Lehrer Productions, 2011, by Rachel Klein, “Lesson Plan: The Science Of Tsunamis: Seeking Understanding In The Wake Of Tragedy”, a NewsHour with Jim Lehrer special for students

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11. December 2011 by Darcy Pattison
Categories: earthquake, tsunami | Tags: , , , | 1 comment

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